User Tools

Site Tools


Links, References and Other Learning Materials

This page will continue to be expanded to include a variety of reference material.

Wireless Basics and Tutorials

Technique Papers

This section covers papers which describe techniques incorporated into the aircrack-ng suite.

Additional Papers

This section has papers where are referenced in the previous section or are just simply interesting in the context of wireless.

802.11 Specifications

WPA/WPA2 Information

Here are some links to learn more about WPA/WPA2:


There are hundreds of books about wireless. This section makes no attempt to list all the available books regarding wireless. Rather, it lists books which will likely be of specific interest to the readers of the wiki. If you have read books that you think should be included here, please post information about them to the forum.

Please keep in mind that books are always dated to some degree. If you are looking for 100% up to date material and information then the Internet is your friend.

CWNA: Certified Wireless Network Administrator Study Guide (Exam PW0-104)

  • Authors: David D. Coleman, David A. Westcott
  • Paperback: 768 pages
  • Publisher: Sybex; 2nd edition (April 6, 2009)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0470438908
  • ISBN-13: 978-0470438909


Although it is designed as a study guide, it is an excellent book to learn the theory of wireless. Having read and studied this book, you will have a really solid understanding of the various forms of wireless, types of packets and how everything works together.

Wi-Foo: The Secrets of Wireless Hacking

  • Authors: by Andrew Vladimirov, Konstantin V. Gavrilenko, Andrei A. Mikhailovsky
  • Paperback: 592 pages
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional; 1st edition (June 28, 2004)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0321202171
  • ISBN-13: 978-0321202178


Although many of the tools and some of the material in the book has become dated, it is still a great introduction to the subject. The focus is on practical application of the tools and concepts rather then lots of theory. Easy reading and still a worthwhile investment.

802.11 Wireless Networks, The Definitive Guide

  • Author: Matthew S. Gast
  • Paperback: 656 pages
  • Publisher: O'Reilly Media; 2 edition (April 25, 2005)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0596100523
  • ISBN-13: 978-0596100520


An excellent book about Wifi, from the physical layer to the different encryption protocols and going through details of the different frames that you might encounter on WiFi networks.

Real 802.11 Security - Wi-Fi Protected Access and 802.11i

  • Author: Jon Edney and William A. Arbaugh
  • Paperback: 480 pages
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional; 1 edition (July 25, 2003)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0321136209
  • ISBN-13: 978-0321136206


Very technical and detailed book about 802.11i. If you are just starting with WiFi, you might want to get 802.11 Wireless Networks, The Definitive Guide first.

Compiling Kernels

A common question on the forums is how to compile a new kernel. This section attempts to identify links to documents, HOWTOs and similar which you may find helpful in this regard.

Another question that comes up is how to compile a single driver module. Here are the basics:

First, cd to the directory which contains the source files to be compiled. It assumes you have patched the source if required.

 make CONFIG_ZD1211RW=m -C /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build M=`pwd` clean
 make CONFIG_ZD1211RW=m -C /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build M=`pwd` modules
 make CONFIG_ZD1211RW=m -C /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build M=`pwd` modules_install
 depmod -ae

In the above:

  • “CONFIG_ZD1211RW=m” If the module is not “enabled” in the kernel config then you need to set the variable for that specific module to “m” for module. IE Enable it. It is not always required and must be changed to the specific driver you are trying to compile.
  • “-C” This has to be set to the location of your kernel source tree. “-C /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build” will typically work correctly.
  • “M=” This has to be set to the location of the source files to be compiled. If you have already changed to the directory containing the source files then “M=`pwd`” will typically work correctly. pwd specifies the current directory you are in.

There are some considerations regarding installing a single module. You will need to ensure that the new module overwrites the existing one in /lib/modules. Sometimes it ends up being placed in a different location in the /lib/modules tree. If this happens then be sure to delete to the old version and run “depmod -ae”.

Alternatively, manually copy the newly created .ko kernel modules over the existing ones located in the /lib/modules tree.


Live Distributions

  • The most popular is Kali Linux since they have all the patched drivers and a full set of tools.
  • Pentoo can be run off a CD or USB. It is based on Gentoo.

Card and Antenna Connectors

Here is a series of URLs with pictures of the connectors used on wireless cards and antennas:

Note: Reversed polarized version (R-SMA/RP-SMA) is where the female contact is in the plug and the male contact in the jack/receptacle.

Microsoft Windows Specific

This section is links to materials specifically related to injection and monitoring support.

  • "802.11 Packet Injection for Windows" by Ryan Grevious. The article describes how to inject packets under MS Vista and provides sample code.
  • "Vista Wireless Power Tools for the Penetration Tester" by Joshua Wright. This paper is designed to illustrate the Vista tools useful for wireless penetration testing, the format of which is designed to be easy to read and utilize as a learning tool. Designed after the timeless work of “Unix Power Tools” by Sherry Powers, et al, this paper presents several “article-ettes” describing the requirements, Vista features and solutions for challenges faced by a penetration tester attacking wireless networks. This paper also presents two new tools, vistarfmon and nm2lp
  • NPcap is Nmap's packet sniffing library for Windows, based on WinPCAP, Libpcap. Downloads are available on the GitHub repository.
links.txt · Last modified: 2019/04/14 22:43 by mister_x