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aireplay-ng [2009/08/14 19:12]
mister_x use dokuwiki internal link
aireplay-ng [2019/08/20 22:50] (current)
mister_x [interfaceX is on channel Y, but the AP uses channel Z] Fixed link
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     * Attack 4: [[KoreK chopchop|KoreK chopchop attack]]      * Attack 4: [[KoreK chopchop|KoreK chopchop attack]] 
     * Attack 5: [[Fragmentation|Fragmentation attack]]     * Attack 5: [[Fragmentation|Fragmentation attack]]
-    * Attack 6: Caffe-latte attack (Coming in the next release! Not available now.) +    * Attack 6: [[cafe-latte|Cafe-latte attack]] 
-    * Attack 7: Client-oriented fragmentation attack (Coming in the next release! Not available now.)+    * Attack 7: [[hirte|Client-oriented fragmentation attack]] 
 +    * Attack 8: [[WPA Migration Mode]]
     * Attack 9: [[injection_test|Injection test]]     * Attack 9: [[injection_test|Injection test]]
  
 ===== Usage ===== ===== Usage =====
  
-This section provides a general overview.  Not all options apply to all attacks.  See the details of the sepcific attack for the relevant details.+This section provides a general overview.  Not all options apply to all attacks.  See the details of the specific attack for the relevant details.
  
 Usage: Usage:
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   *-w iswep  : frame control, WEP     bit   *-w iswep  : frame control, WEP     bit
  
-When replaying (injecting) packets, the following options apply.  Keep in mind that not every option is relevant for every attack.  The specific attack documention provides examples of the relevant options.+When replaying (injecting) packets, the following options apply.  Keep in mind that not every option is relevant for every attack.  The specific attack documentation provides examples of the relevant options.
  
 Replay options: Replay options:
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   *-c dmac   : set Destination  MAC address   *-c dmac   : set Destination  MAC address
   *-h smac   : set Source       MAC address   *-h smac   : set Source       MAC address
-  *-e essid  : fakeauth  attack : set target AP SSID+  *-e essid  : For fakeauth attack or injection test, it sets target AP SSID.  This is optional when the SSID is not hidden.
   *-j     : arpreplay attack : inject FromDS pkts   *-j     : arpreplay attack : inject FromDS pkts
   *-g value  : change ring buffer size (default: 8)   *-g value  : change ring buffer size (default: 8)
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   *-q sec    : seconds between keep-alives (-1)   *-q sec    : seconds between keep-alives (-1)
   *-y prga   : keystream for shared key auth   *-y prga   : keystream for shared key auth
 +  * "-B" or "--bittest"  : bit rate test (Applies only to test mode)
 +  * "-D"      :disables AP detection.  Some modes will not proceed if the AP beacon is not heard.  This disables this functionality.
 +  * "-F" or "--fast"     : chooses first matching packet.  For test mode, it just checks basic injection and skips all other tests.
 +  * "-R" disables /dev/rtc usage.  Some systems experience lockups or other problems with RTC.  This disables the usage.
 +
  
-The attacks can obtain packets to replay from two sources.  The first being a live flow of packets from your wireless card.  The second being from a pcap file.  Standard Pcap format (Packet CAPture, associated with the libpcap library http://www.tcpdump.org), is recognized by most commercial and open-source traffic capture and analysis tools.  Reading from a file is an often overlooked feature of aireplay-ng.  This allows you read packets from other capture sessions or quite often, various attacks generate pcap files for easy reuse.+The attacks can obtain packets to replay from two sources.  The first being a live flow of packets from your wireless card.  The second being from a pcap file.  Standard Pcap format (Packet CAPture, associated with the libpcap library http://www.tcpdump.org), is recognized by most commercial and open-source traffic capture and analysis tools.  Reading from a file is an often overlooked feature of aireplay-ng.  This allows you to read packets from other capture sessions.  Keep in mind that various attacks generate pcap files for easy reuse.
  
 Source options: Source options:
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   * Need more information to launch it - IE IP address info.  Quite often this can be guessed.  Better still, aireplay-ng assumes source and destination IPs of 255.255.255.255 if nothing is specified.  This will work successfully on most if not all APs.  So this is a very  limited con.   * Need more information to launch it - IE IP address info.  Quite often this can be guessed.  Better still, aireplay-ng assumes source and destination IPs of 255.255.255.255 if nothing is specified.  This will work successfully on most if not all APs.  So this is a very  limited con.
   * Setup to execute the attack is more subject to the device drivers.  For example, Atheros does not generate the correct packets unless the wireless card is set to the mac address you are spoofing.   * Setup to execute the attack is more subject to the device drivers.  For example, Atheros does not generate the correct packets unless the wireless card is set to the mac address you are spoofing.
-  * You need to be physically closer to the access point since if any packets are lost then the attack fails.+  * You need to be physically closer to the access point because if any packets are lost then the attack fails.
   * The attack will fail on access points which do not properly handle fragmented packets.   * The attack will fail on access points which do not properly handle fragmented packets.
  
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 ==== Optimizing injection speeds ==== ==== Optimizing injection speeds ====
  
-Optimizing injection speed is more art than science. First, try using to tools "as is" You can try using the "-x" parameter to vary the injection speed.  Surprisingly, lowering this value can sometimes increase your overall rate.+Optimizing injection speed is more art than science. First, try using the tools "as is" You can try using the "-x" parameter to vary the injection speed.  Surprisingly, lowering this value can sometimes increase your overall rate.
  
-You may try to playing with the rate "iwconfig wlan0 rate 11M". Depending on the driver and how you started the card in monitor mode, it is typically 1 or 11MBit by default.  If you are close enough set it up to a higher value, like 54M, this way you'll get more packets per second.  If you are too far away and the packets don't travel that far, try to lowering it to (for example) 1M.+You can try playing with the transmission rate.  IE "iwconfig wlan0 rate 11M". Depending on the driver and how you started the card in monitor mode, it is typically 1 or 11MBit by default.  If you are close enough set it up to a higher value, like 54M, this way you'll get more packets per second.  If you are too far away and the packets don't travel that far, try to lowering it to (for example) 1M.
  
  
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 These items apply to all modes of aireplay-ng. These items apply to all modes of aireplay-ng.
 +
 +==== aireplay-ng does not inject packets ====
 +Ensure you are using the correct monitor mode interface.  "iwconfig" will show the wireless interfaces and their state.  For the mac80211 drivers, the monitor mode interface is typically "mon0" For ieee80211 madwifi-ng drivers, it is typically "ath0" For other drivers, the interface name may vary.
  
 ==== For madwifi-ng, ensure there are no other VAPs running ==== ==== For madwifi-ng, ensure there are no other VAPs running ====
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 You enter the command and the command appears to hang and there is no output.\\ You enter the command and the command appears to hang and there is no output.\\
  
-This is typically caused by being on the wrong channel compared to the access point.  Another potential cause of this problem is when you are using an old version of firmware on prism2 chipset.  Be sure you are running firmware 1.7.4 or above to resolve this.  See [[faq#i_have_a_prism2_card_but_airodump-ng_aireplay-ng_doesn_t_seem_to_work|Prism card]] for more details.  Firmware upgrade instruction can be found [[prism2_flashing|here]].+This is typically caused by your wireless card being on a different channel then the access point.  Another potential cause of this problem is when you are using an old version of firmware on prism2 chipset.  Be sure you are running firmware 1.7.4 or above to resolve this.  See [[faq#i_have_a_prism2_card_but_airodump-ng_aireplay-ng_doesn_t_seem_to_work|Prism card]] for more details.  Firmware upgrade instruction can be found [[prism2_flashing|here]].
  
 As well, if you have another instance of aireplay-ng running in background mode, this can cause the second to hang if the options conflict. As well, if you have another instance of aireplay-ng running in background mode, this can cause the second to hang if the options conflict.
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 "rtc: lost some interrupts at 1024Hz" "rtc: lost some interrupts at 1024Hz"
  
-This message is then repeated thousands of times.  There are a couple of workarounds.  The first is to start a second instance of aireplay, then injection would increase to around 300 pps.  The second workaround is to:+This message is then repeated continuously.  There are a couple of workarounds.  The first workaround is to start another instance of aireplay, then injection would increase to around 300 pps.  The second workaround is to:
  
    rmmod rtc    rmmod rtc
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 There are many possible root causes of this problem: There are many possible root causes of this problem:
  
-  * The wireless card is set to a channel which is different then the AP.  Solution: Use iwconfig and confirm the card is set to the same channel as the AP.+  * The wireless card is set to a channel which is different from the AP.  Solution: Use iwconfig and confirm the card is set to the same channel as the AP.
   * The card is scanning channels.  Solution: Start airodump-ng with the "-c" or "--channel" parameter and set it to the same channel as the AP.   * The card is scanning channels.  Solution: Start airodump-ng with the "-c" or "--channel" parameter and set it to the same channel as the AP.
   * The ESSID is wrong.  Solution: Enter the correct value.  If if contains spaces or special characters then enclose it in quotes.  For the complete details, see this [[faq#how_to_use_spaces_double_quote_and_single_quote_etc._in_ap_names|FAQ entry]].   * The ESSID is wrong.  Solution: Enter the correct value.  If if contains spaces or special characters then enclose it in quotes.  For the complete details, see this [[faq#how_to_use_spaces_double_quote_and_single_quote_etc._in_ap_names|FAQ entry]].
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 For all of the above, running airodump-ng and the related text file should provide all the information you require identify and correct the problem. For all of the above, running airodump-ng and the related text file should provide all the information you require identify and correct the problem.
 +
 +
 +==== interfaceX is on channel Y, but the AP uses channel Z ====
 +
 +A typical example of this message is: "mon0 is on channel 1, but the AP uses channel 6"
 +
 +This means something is causing your card to channel hop.  Possible reasons is that failed to start airodump-ng locked to a single channel.  airodump-ng needs to be started with "-c <channel-number>.
 +
 +Another reason is that you have processes such as a network manager or wpa_supplicant channel hopping.  You must kill off all these processes.  See [[airmon-ng]] for details on checking what is running and how to kill the processes off.
  
 ==== General ==== ==== General ====
 Also make sure that: Also make sure that:
  
-  * Most modes of aireplay-ng require that your MAC address be associated with the access point.  The exception being client disassociation, injection test and fake authentication modes.  You must either do a fake authentication to associate your MAC address with the access point or use the MAC address of a client already associated with the AP.  Failure to do this means that the access point will not accept your packets.  Look for  deauthentication or disassociation messages during injection which indicate you are not associated with the access point.  aireplay-ng will typically indicate this or it can be done using tcpdump: "tcpdump -n -e -s0 -vvv -i <interface name>" You can filter it by piping it to grep with something like `tcpdump -n -e -s0 -vvv -i ath0 | grep -E "DeAuth|assoc"'.  +  * Most modes of aireplay-ng require that your MAC address be associated with the access point.  The exception being client disassociation, injection test and fake authentication modes.  You must either do a fake authentication to associate your MAC address with the access point or use the MAC address of a client already associated with the AP.  Failure to do this means that the access point will not accept your packets.  Look for deauthentication or disassociation messages during injection which indicates you are not associated with the access point.  aireplay-ng will typically indicate this or it can be done using tcpdump: "tcpdump -n -e -s0 -vvv -i <interface name>" You can filter it by piping it to grep with something like `tcpdump -n -e -s0 -vvv -i ath0 | grep -E "DeAuth|assoc"'.  
   * The wireless card driver is properly patched and installed.  Use the [[injection_test|injection test]] to confirm your card can inject.   * The wireless card driver is properly patched and installed.  Use the [[injection_test|injection test]] to confirm your card can inject.
   * You are physically close enough to the access point.  You can confirm that you can communicate with the specific AP by following [[injection_test#hidden_or_specific_ssid|these instructions]].   * You are physically close enough to the access point.  You can confirm that you can communicate with the specific AP by following [[injection_test#hidden_or_specific_ssid|these instructions]].
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   * The BSSID and ESSID (-a / -e options) are correct.   * The BSSID and ESSID (-a / -e options) are correct.
   * If Prism2, make sure the firmware was updated.   * If Prism2, make sure the firmware was updated.
-  * Ensure your are running the current stable version.  Some options are not available in older versions of the program.  As well, the current stable version contains many bug fixes. +  * Ensure your are running the current stable version.  Some options are not available in older versions of the program.  Also, the current stable version contains many bug fixes. 
-  * It does not hurt to check the [[http://trac.aircrack-ng.org/|Trac System]] to see if your "problem" is actually a known bug in the current stable version.  Many times the current [[main#development|development version]] has fixes to bugs within the current stable version.+  * It does not hurt to check the [[https://github.com/aircrack-ng/aircrack-ng/issues/|GitHub issues]] to see if your "problem" is actually a known bug in the current stable version.  Many times the current [[main#development|development version]] has fixes to bugs within the current stable version.
  
-===== Release Candidate or SVN Version Notes ===== 
- 
-This section ONLY applies the latest SVN version and to some release candidate versions of the aircrack-ng suite.  Once they are released as "stable" then the documentation above will be updated. 
- 
-Changes: 
- 
-  * "-e <ESSID>" is not needed provided the ESSID is not hidden. (Applies to fake auth and test) 
-  * "-B" or "--bittest" is a bit rate test (Applies to test) 
-  * "-F" or "--fast" is a fast test (Applies to test) 
-  * "-D" disables AP detection.  Some modes will not proceed if the AP beacon is not heard.  This disables this functionality. 
-  * "-F" chooses first matching packet 
-  * "-R" disables /dev/rtc usage.  Some systems experience lockups or other problems with RTC.  This disables the usage. 
  
aireplay-ng.1250269961.txt.gz · Last modified: 2009/08/14 19:12 by mister_x